The theme park atmosphere of the new developments at the mouth of the Sungei Melaka turned me off. So I decided to resume the trail along the historical center of Melaka. As with any self respecting and insecure colonizing power, the numerous conquerors of Melaka built bulwarks surrounding the entire town of Melaka. This is very typical of western colonizers as it also happened with the Spanish at Intramuros in Manila, Philippines where the walls still stand. In the case of Melaka, the Portuguese and then the Dutch built and fortified the bulwarks they built.
And with good reason, in that age of conquest, countries would go to war over territories. Melaka was all the more important target because of its importance as a trading post and an excellent location. The bulwarks were mounted with canons to improve the defenses of the colony. Now not much is left of these bulwarks. At one corner near the maritime museum, I noticed what appeared to be an open pit excavation. Apparently the archaeologists managed to unearth remains of the ancient Bastion of Frederik Hendrik, who was the Dutch King at that time. The bulwark was apparently built from the old Portuguese bulwark of Courassa and further back, from an ancient Malay sultanate fort.